The Jewish Community of Thessaloniki retained a chain of philanthropic foundations and an outstanding system for mutual help and solidarity. The “Bikur Cholim” Health Organisation provided medical, pharmaceutical and hospital care to the city’s poor Jews. There is a reference as early as 1789 of a hospital in the middle of the Jewish cemetery. In 1908, the modern Hirsch hospital was founded, thanks to private donations and the hard work of physician Moshe Mizrahi. The Community also maintained the “Saul Modiano” home for the elderly, the Allatini and Aboav orphanages, the Lieto Noah psychiatric asylum, and philanthropic organizations, such as the Matanoth Laevionim and the Torah Umlaha, which supported poor university students.